stairs

Production process

Wooden stairs

Wood is a popular material for attractive and durable stairs. There are different kinds of wooden stairs. Girder or wooden stairs usually have steps laying on a girder which is positioned in the middle; with frame stairs, the steps are held by a frame that runs down the side. Steps are fitted into appropriate slots in the frame. Alternatively, a groove is milled into the frame. The steps are clued to the frame and/or screwed in. Sometimes the steps are connected with risers inbetween the steps.

Modern, machine-produced wooden stairs are usually frame stairs that are produced as shown in the following procedure.

The rails for wooden stairs are frequently made of the same material as the steps and frames.

Source product

Dried timber in the shape of boards or decks. Alternative: Purchase solid wooden boards (in this case part procedure no. 1 'Board production' does not apply).

Most wooden stairs consist of a several centimetre thick layer of solid wood; often deciduous wood.

Alternatively, steps can be made out of wood composite board cores (ply or fibre wood; production see appropriate procedure), that are covered with a surface of another material (for example, a thinner layer of solid wood).

Solid wooden stairs are usually made of boards that have been made out of smaller, low on faulty parts, or perfect pieces of wood. First the used, dried wooden decks are cut into strips, the faults in the wood are cut out, and the smaller strips glued together to make large boards.

Stair producers usually buy the deck-shaped cut material in a dry state.

Often, the boards are glued together individually for a certain step or frame, ensuring as little waste as possible at the edges and achieving as good a look as possible. Alternatively, large boards are used that are bought from other producers. This procedure causes higher amounts of waste.

Production Process

  • Producing boards

    Cutting decks to length

    The ends of the decks are cut off and the desired length pre-formatted. 

    Machines:
    Cross-cutting saws

    Tools:
    Circular saw blade

    Longitudinal separating into slats

    As a board or a wide slat cups too much, narrower slats are cut.

    Machines:

    Tools:
    Circular saw blade

    Four-sided planing

    Machines:
    Four-sided planing machine

    Tools:
    Planer knife

    Sorting, intermediate storage, air conditioning

    Machines:
    Optoelectronic system

    Putting shapes together

    Applying glue

    A hand gluing application device or a simple glue application machine is used to apply glue. 

    Machines:

    Pressing

    Machines:
    Gluing stand

    Drying

    Depending on the kind of glue that is used, the pressed boards have to harden.

    Machines:
    Drying processes

  • CNC-Machining

    Calibrating and pre-sanding

    Machines:
    Planer, Wide-belt sanding machine

    Tools:
    Planing knife, Wide belts

    Possible pre-formatting

    Depending on the processing concept the boards can be pre-formatted on longitudinal or transverse circular saws prior to the machining centre. 

    Machines:
    Sawing machine

    Tools:
    Circular saw blade

    CNC-Bearbeitung

    Das Bearbeitungszentrum führt folgende Schritte in einer Werkstückaufspannung durch: Formatieren, Fräsen, Bohren, Nuten, Kantenschleifen, Verleimprofil. Für runde oder geschwungene Teile - z.B. den Krümmling - kommt 5-Achs-Technik zum Einsatz. Einzelne Treppenteile bauen recht hoch, daher kommt es bei Bearbeitungszentren für den Treppenbau auf die maximale Werkstückhöhe an (mehr als z.B. im Möbelbau). Mit einwechselbaren Werkzeugaggregaten lassen sich die Bearbeitungsmöglichkeiten des Bearbeitungszentrums erweitern. In großen Treppenbaubetrieben kann das Bearbeitungszentrum von Robotern beschickt werden.

    Machines:
    MC, Units, Feeding robot

    Tools:
    Circular saw blade, , Drilling tools

    Post processing

    Components are frequently processed after CNC machining by hand. 

    Machines:
    Manual workplaces, Hand machines

  • Surface

    Sanding surfaces

    Longitudinal or wide-belt sanding machines are used to sand surfaces. 

    Machines:
    Belt sanding machines

    Tools:
    Wide-belts

    Sanding edges

    Machines:
    Edge sanding machine

    Tools:
    Narrow bands

    Varnishing

    Stairs, and especially steps, are exposed to heavy duty. Surfaces are often treated several times with varnishes, oils, or waxes. These can be applied manually.

    Machines:
    Spraying machine, Roller coater, Flooding system, Spraying booth

    Varnish drying

    The material is dried in shelves or drying carts, or at higher speed in a varnish dryer.

    Machines:
    Varnish dryer

    Possible intermediate varnish sanding

    To improve durability of the layers of varnish it is necessary to sand in between coatings.

    Machines:
    Sanding / polishing machine

    Tools:
    Wide belts

    Possible repeated varnishing

    Stair steps are exposed to extremely high wear and tear, therefore it is common to have several layers of varnish (foundation/cover varnish layer).

    Machines:
    Spraying machine, Roller coater, Flooding system, Spraying cabin

    Drying varnish

    The material is usually dried in shelves / drying carts, or at higher speed in a varnish dryer. 

    Machines:
    Varnish dryer

  • Packaging, transportation, installation

    Packaging, transportation

    Elaborate packaging that is applied by hand or machince is standard to protect the product. Cardboard, bubble film, hard fibre boards, shrink film, bands, and material is used. 

    Machines:
    Packaging machine

    Installation

    Stairs are installed on site.

    Machines:
    Electrical tools

Production process:Wooden stairs – CNC-Machining

Tools for production process Wooden stairs4

Besides machinery, also additional devices and gadgets are used in woodworking. Machine tools for Wooden stairs production are listed here.

  • Cutters with bore, HW- / special steel-tipped

    E.g. used in:Wooden stairs, Cross laminated timber

  • Long sanding belts

    E.g. used in:Wooden stairs

  • Shank cutters for CNC routers and machining centres, HW- / special steel-tipped

    E.g. used in:Wooden stairs

  • Shank cutters for CNC routers and machining centres, with turnover knives (HW / special steel)

    E.g. used in:Wooden stairs

Necessary peripheral devices for Wooden stairs3

  • Briquetting presses

    E.g. used in:Windows, Wooden stairs

  • Chips and dust extraction systems (including filters)

    E.g. used in:Windows, Wooden stairs, Cross laminated timber

  • Fire and spark extinguishing systems

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Floorings, Wooden stairs, Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

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