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Wooden window (Illustration)

Production process


There are many different production approaches for windows - there are hardly even two window production plants that work in the same way globally. This description is on standard window and window combination manufacturing procedures that use only straight parts. Window production with curved parts (round windows, arches) is a different procedure.

In Europe, the standards for windows in different application areas are defined in the EN 14351-1; there you will find information on airtightness, wind resistance, heavy rain resistance, and heat transition. The contents of this norm can also give important insight outside Europe. Depending on application and international tendencies, countless different constructions are used around the world. The main differences can be found in the profile, opening method and corner connection. The production procedure is, however, similar. 

Window profiles: Window profile names are standardised. IV68, IV78, IV90, IV 106 are common profiles. But apart from simple wooden windows, wood-alu constructions, front doors (often with fixed glazing), lift-up sliding doors, low-energy windows, or passive house windows are possible.

Opening methods: spin windows, tilt windows, horizontal slide windows, vertical slide windows, pivot windows, etc.

Corner connections: The traditional connection is slot and peg. Today dowel connections are most common, usually reinforced with screws.

Further points to be adhered to in window construction: Fitting fold, gear groove, glass strip, glazing method, edge design inside and out, frame cover and glass dewlap, drainage options, sash seal, driving rain impermeability

Source product

Window scantling, solid or finger-jointed and usually glued in three layers. Standard types of wood are meranti, oak, pine, larch, and spruce. There is information on bonding in DIN EN 204.


Standard window means one-sided windows in standard sizes. These can be produced e.g. as stock goods.

Production Process

  • Part cutting

    Window scantling, rough (Illustration)


    All necessary parts for window frames and wings, as well as if applicable glass strips are cut out of the scantling in standard delivery lengths. There are countless variations of cutting saws with automatic or manual feed, cutting from above or below. Waste optimisation software is usually used. 

    Cross-cutting saw

    Circular saw blade

    Four-sided planing

    All parts are planed on four sides to achieve perfectly even surfaces and right angles. This step is important for keeping the measure and precision of all further processing steps. At the same time in the process the material for the glass strips is often removed from the frame parts, especially in larger volume production. In smaller production volumes the glass strips are more commonly made on their own from a different raw material.

    Four-sided planer

    Cutter head, Saw blade

  • Frame / Wing production

    Window wing (Illustration)

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    • Machining centre
    • Individual steps

    Cross and vertical profiling

    Wing and frame parts are processed from all sides in a machining centre, i.e. cross and vertical profiling is executed, as well as the insertion of necessary drill holes for mechanics, and if necessary, for corner connections requiring dowels. A counter machining centre, onto which the parts are individually laid manually, is used for smaller amounts. To be able to mill from all sides it is necessary to reclamp the workpiece; there are appropriate clamp systems available.

    Machining centre

    Cutter head, Shank cutter, Drill

    End machining

    Frames and wing parts are given their face-side profile, depending on the chosen corner connection. The dowel holes for dowel connections must be inserted in a further step. 

    Profiling machine, Tenoning machine, Double-end tenoner

    Cutter head

    Longitudinal processing

    The longitudinal sections of the frame and wing parts are given their profile. Tears that may have occurred during end machining are milled away. Dowel holes for doweled corner connections must be inserted in a further step. 


    Cutter head


    It is important for the surfaces to be even so that they both look good and remain durable. If there are dents made by planers in former steps then these must be removed. That is why the longitudinal sides of all parts are usually sanded on four sides by a machine before they are glued. This step can be omitted if the longitudinal processing was of very good quality, or it can be performed after gluing. But then the inner profiles can only be sanded by hand. 

    Profile sanding machine

    Profile sanding tool, Narrow strip


    The individual frame and wing parts are each assembled as a finished blank. This covers glueing (adhesive application), if necessary insertion of dowels and screws in the corner connections, combining parts, and then grouting, including waiting time until the glue has hardened. 

    Frame press

  • Surface treatment

    Fully varnished window wing (Illustration)


    Now the wooden surface must be prepared for varnishing. If the profiles were already sanded prior to bonding then it is only necessary to remove any surplus glue from the corner connections manually. If this is the first time the product is to be sanded then usually wide-belt sanders are used for small quantities for the face surfaces (interior and exterior). Manual work is executed using an orbital sander. 

    Wide-belt sander, Orbital sander, Brush sanding machine

    Wide-belts, Sanding discs


    In small to medium range window production, windows are usually varnished by hand in a spray station. It is important to keep the air clean to ensure a high surface quality, and also to protect both the worker's health and the environment. After varnishing there is a necessary drying period. 

    Spray stand

    Spray gun

  • Hinging

    Window wing with fitting (Illustration)

    Implementing fittings

    Wings and frames are given their fittings. This includes sliding mechanisms for horizontal and vertical sliding windows and the rods and bands for spin-tilt windows. Fittings for lift-sliding doors are especially complex. All are fitted and screwed tightly manually. This does not include the window handle, this is only mounted after the window has been installed.

    Power drill

  • Completion

    Complete window in packaging

    Planing glass strips

    Completed glass strip profiles are available in trade. As suitable dimensions result out of scantling waste during wing production it is common to make glass strips out of this waste material. First of all, the longitudinal profile is milled out of the raw material cut out of the scantling during the four-side planing process.


    Cutter head

    Glass strip surface treatment

    The glass strips' surface is treated in the same way as wing parts. See above part process surface treatment.

    Mitre cut glass strips to length

    For each window wing glass strips are fitted exactly using mitre cuts. This can be done by sawing or stamping.

    Mitre saw

    Circular saw blade

    Inserting glass

    The last step in processing window wings is fitting the glass. There are tools to help handle the panes; apart from that the fitting is done manually: The pane is fitted, wedged according to the fitting and opening situation and fixed with glass strips. Silicone is usually used for sealing. Then there is a drying period that needs to be observed.

    Configure and pack element

    Finally window wings and frames are combined, i.e. the wings are manually inserted into their frames. If the windows are now placed on the market, they have to be packed to protect them from damage. If the windows are taken directly to the construction site ex works, they are usually transported without packaging in a specially designed vehicle.

Production process:Windows – Small to medium measure production – Standard window

Tools for production process Windows1

Besides machinery, also additional devices and gadgets are used in woodworking. Machine tools for Windows production are listed here.

  • Portable spraying equipment (e.g. guns for lacquers / adhesives)

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Wooden stairs

Necessary peripheral devices for Windows8

  • Briquetting presses

    E.g. used in:Windows, Wooden stairs

  • Chips and dust extraction systems (including filters)

    E.g. used in:Windows, Wooden stairs, Cross laminated timber

  • Chopping machines (slow-speed)

    E.g. used in:Windows

  • Extraction machines, stand alone

    E.g. used in:Windows

  • Extraction systems

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Flooring

  • Fire and spark extinguishing systems

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Flooring, Wooden stairs, Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Silos

    E.g. used in:Windows

  • Stationary hoggers

    E.g. used in:Windows

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