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Wooden window (Illustration)

Production process

Windows

There are many different production approaches for windows - there are hardly even two window production plants that work in the same way globally. This description is on standard window and window combination manufacturing procedures that use only straight parts. Window production with curved parts (round windows, arches) is a different procedure.

In Europe, the standards for windows in different application areas are defined in the EN 14351-1; there you will find information on airtightness, wind resistance, heavy rain resistance, and heat transition. The contents of this norm can also give important insight outside Europe. Depending on application and international tendencies, countless different constructions are used around the world. The main differences can be found in the profile, opening method and corner connection. The production procedure is, however, similar. 

Window profiles: Window profile names are standardised. IV68, IV78, IV90, IV 106 are common profiles. But apart from simple wooden windows, wood-alu constructions, front doors (often with fixed glazing), lift-up sliding doors, low-energy windows, or passive house windows are possible.

Opening methods: spin windows, tilt windows, horizontal slide windows, vertical slide windows, pivot windows, etc.

Corner connections: The traditional connection is slot and peg. Today dowel connections are most common, usually reinforced with screws.

Further points to be adhered to in window construction: Fitting fold, gear groove, glass strip, glazing method, edge design inside and out, frame cover and glass dewlap, drainage options, sash seal, driving rain impermeability

Source product

Window scantling, solid or finger-jointed and usually glued in three layers. Standard types of wood are meranti, oak, pine, larch, and spruce. There is information on bonding in DIN EN 204.

Complexity

Standard window means one-wing windows in standard measurements. These can be produced e.g. as stock items

Production Process

  • Part cutting

    Window scantling, raw (Illustration)

    Cross-cutting

     

    All parts required for window frame, wings, and if applicable glass strips, are cross-cut from the scantling in standard delivery lengths. There are countless versions of cross-cut saws, cutting both from above, as well as from below. Usually models with automatic feeding are used in mass production and waste is kept to a minimum by using computers.

    Machines:
    Cross-cut saw

    Tools:
    Circular saw blade

    Four-sided planing

    All parts are planed on four sides to achieve perfectly even surfaces and right angles. This step is important for the right measure and precision of all further processing steps. Usually material for the glass strips is cut out of the frame parts in the same step.

    Machines:
    Four-sided planer

    Tools:
    Cutter head, Saw blade

  • Frame / Wing production

    Raw windows (Illustration)

    End processing

    The frame and wing parts are given their front-side profile, depending on the chosen corner connection. With dowel connections, the holes for the dowels must be made in a further step. 

    Machines:
    Tenoning machine, Double-end tenoner

    Tools:
    Cutter head

    Lateral processing

    The lateral sides of the frames and wing parts are given their profile. Tears that occurred during end processing are cut away in this step. When creating doweled corner connections a further step to make the dowel holes is necessary. 

    Machines:
    Moulding machine

    Tools:
    Cutter head

    Sanding

    It is important for the surfaces to be even, so that they both look good and remain durable. If there are dents made by planers in former steps then these must be removed. That is why the longitudinal sides of all parts are usually sanded on four sides by a machine before they are glued. This step can be omitted if the longitudinal processing was of very good quality, or it can be performed after gluing. But then the inner profiles can only be sanded by hand. 

    Machines:
    Profile sanding machine

    Tools:
    Profile sanding tool, Narrow band

    Gluing

    The individual frame and wing parts are each assembled as a finished raw window. This includes glue application, if nec. insertion of dowels and screws in the corner connections, part assembly and grouting, including the waiting period until the glue has hardened. 

    Machines:
    Frame press, Dowel insertion machine

  • Surface treatment

    Window wings (Illustration)

    Sanding

    The wooden surface now has to be prepared for varnishing.  Surplus glue may have to be removed from the corner connections manually. Sometimes wide-belt sanding machines are used for the visible surfaces (inside and out). Manual work is done using an eccentric sander. 

    Machines:
    Wide-belt sanding machine, Eccentric sander

    Tools:
    Wide-belts, Sanding discs

    Varnishing

    Varnishing robots, dipping, or flow-coat systems are used to apply varnish. It is important to keep the air clean to ensure a high surface quality and protect the environment. After varnishing there is a drying period that has to be adhered to. 

    Machines:
    Dipping system, Flow-coat system , Varnishing robot, Vacuum varnishing system

    Tools:
    Varnishing spray gun

  • Hinging

    Hinge window wing (Illustration)

    Assembling hinges

    Wings and frames are fitted with their mechanisms or fittings. This includes sliding mechanisms for horizontal and vertical sliding windows and the rods and bands for spin-tilt windows. Fittings for lifting-sliding doors are especially complex. All are fitted and screwed tightly manually. This does not include the window handle, this is only mounted after the window has been installed.

     

     

     

    Machines:
    Power drill

  • Completion

    Windows in packaging (Illustration)

    Planing glass strips

    It is possible to buy glass strip profiles, but as in window wing production suitable dimensions are available in scantling, it is customary to make the glass strips out of this material. First of all, the lateral profile is cut out of the raw material that was cut out of the window scantling during the four-sided planing process. 

    Machines:
    Moulding machine

    Tools:
    Cutter head

    Surface treatment glass strips

    The surface of the glass strips is treated in the same way as the wing parts. See also above the part process surface treatment. 

    Mitre cut glass strips to length

    Glass strips are mitred exactly for each window wing. This can be done by sawing or stamping. 

    Machines:
    Mitre saw, Mitre stamp

    Tools:
    Circular saw blade

    Inserting glass

    The last step in processing window wings is fitting the glass. There are tools to help handle the panes; apart from that the fitting is done manually: The pane is fitted, wedged according to the fitting and opening situation and fixed with glass strips. Silicone is usually used for sealing. Then there is a drying period that needs to be observed.

    Configure and pack element

    Finally, window wings and frames are combined, i.e., the wings are manually inserted into their frames. If the windows are now placed on the market, they have to be packed to protect them from damage. If the windows are taken directly to the construction site ex works, they are usually transported without packaging in a specially designed vehicle.

Production process:Windows – Mass production – Standard window

Tools for production process Windows1

Besides machinery, also additional devices and gadgets are used in woodworking. Machine tools for Windows production are listed here.

  • Portable spraying equipment (e.g. guns for lacquers / adhesives)

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Wooden stairs

Necessary peripheral devices for Windows8

  • Briquetting presses

    E.g. used in:Windows, Wooden stairs

  • Chips and dust extraction systems (including filters)

    E.g. used in:Windows, Wooden stairs, Cross laminated timber

  • Chopping machines (slow-speed)

    E.g. used in:Windows

  • Extraction machines, stand alone

    E.g. used in:Windows

  • Extraction systems

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Flooring

  • Fire and spark extinguishing systems

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Flooring, Wooden stairs, Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Silos

    E.g. used in:Windows

  • Stationary hoggers

    E.g. used in:Windows

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