There are many different production approaches for windows - there are hardly even two window production plants that work in the same way globally. This description is on standard window and window combination manufacturing procedures that use only straight parts. Window production with curved parts (round windows, arches) is a different procedure.
In Europe, the standards for windows in different application areas are defined in the EN 14351-1; there you will find information on airtightness, wind resistance, heavy rain resistance, and heat transition. The contents of this norm can also give important insight outside Europe. Depending on application and international tendencies, countless different constructions are used around the world. The main differences can be found in the profile, opening method and corner connection. The production procedure is, however, similar.
Window profiles: Window profile names are standardised. IV68, IV78, IV90, IV 106 are common profiles. But apart from simple wooden windows, wood-alu constructions, front doors (often with fixed glazing), lift-up sliding doors, low-energy windows, or passive house windows are possible.
Opening methods: spin windows, tilt windows, horizontal slide windows, vertical slide windows, pivot windows, etc.
Corner connections: The traditional connection is slot and peg. Today dowel connections are most common, usually reinforced with screws.
Further points to be adhered to in window construction: Fitting fold, gear groove, glass strip, glazing method, edge design inside and out, frame cover and glass dewlap, drainage options, sash seal, driving rain impermeability
Window scantling, solid or finger-jointed and usually glued in three layers. Standard types of wood are meranti, oak, pine, larch, and spruce. There is information on bonding in DIN EN 204.