Chip board (Illustration)

Production process

Chip board

Chip board is the oldest and most well-known wood material. It is made up of different sized glued chips that create a multi-layer structure. It is used mainly in furniture production and interior construction. 

Source product

The basic material for chip board is fibre material that contains wood. That is mainly industrial logs, sawmill by-products, such as rinds, splinters, chips, or sawdust, as well as waste wood. Bamboo, bagasse, rice straw, or similar vegetable fibres are also used to make wood composite boards. Below the chip board production process is described with industrial logs as a raw material base. 

Production Process

  • Creating shavings

    Shavings for chip board production (Illustration)

    Debarking

    Depending on the quality requirements towards the chip material the wooden trunks are debarked either in drum or rotor debarkers. 

    Machines:
    Debarking line

    Creating chips

    In the two-step chipping process first the logs and industrial waste wood are processed into chips. This is usually done by a drum chipper or a disc chipper. 

    Machines:
    Drum chipper, Removing metal

    Tools:
    Knife

    Machining

    Then the chips are machined by a knife ring flaker into shavings. The shavings' geometry is important for the finished chip board's characteristics. 

    Machines:
    Waferiser

    Tools:
    Knife, Blade grinding machine

    Drying

    The damp chip material is usually dried to its target moisture by convection drying in a rotating tube bundle drum dryer.

    Machines:
    Dryer

    Preparing the chips

    The chip material is divided into the appropriate fractions for a multi-layer chip board. Also, the fine material (dust) and coarse material (oversizes) is cut out of the mass flow. 

    Machines:
    Sieve machines and separators

    Measuring moisture

    At diverse points during the production process quality parameters are collected, such as humidity, density, or thickness of the chippings or the board, and used to steer the line. 

    Machines:
    Moisture measuring device

  • Pressing

    Pressing a chip board (Illustration)

    Coating

    The chips have to be coated, separated according to middle layer and top layer. Coating the chips means both the accurate combination of glue and chips, as well as the even distribution of the binding agent over the chips. 

    Machines:
    Glue mixer

    Spreading

    The spreading station (also forming line) has to spread out the chips evenly, both longitudinally, as well as cross-wise, and to create the layers of cover and middle layer chips across the thickness of the board.

    Machines:
    Spreading machine

    Applying fluid

    Water, release agents, and other additives can be sprayed on prior to pressing. 

    Machines:
    Spray device

    Surface weight measurement

    At several points in the production process quality parameters are collected, such as moisture, density, or thickness of the mat or board and are used to steer the line. 

    Machines:
    Quality surveillance and steering

    Pre-pressing

    To ensure a high board quality the spread chip mat can be vented before it goes to the press. This is done by belt pre-presses, that pre-compress the partially very thickly spread mats using pressure. To raise production capacity, the mat can be heated by pre-warming.

    Machines:
    Pre-press

    Pressing

    In the heat press the board is given its later thickness and structure. Not only the glue hardens, but also the wood particles are plastified and remain in shape.

    Machines:
    continuous press, Layer press

    Quality surveillance

    At diverse points during production quality parameters are collected, such as humidity, density, or board or mat thickness, and used to steer the line. 

    Machines:
    Quality surveillance and steering

  • Commissioning

    stacked and bound chip boards (Illustration)

    Pre-formatting

    After the press the endless board is edged and cut to length. The diagonal saw, which is synchronised to the press speed, cuts the board to a predetermined length.

    Machines:
    Optimising board edger, Diagonal saw

    Tools:
    Saw blade

    Cooling

    The boards are cooled to storage temperature in a star cooler. This procedure is also called conditioning.

    Machines:
    Star cooler

    Calibrating

    After conditioning the raw boards are calibrated. This surface enhancement by sanding counts as an important quality factor in board material production.

    Machines:
    Sanding machine

    Tools:
    Wide-belt

    Formatting

    The boards are cut into smaller final formats in a cutting line.

    Machines:
    Cutting-to-size line

    Tools:
    Saw blade

    Conveying, storing, and packaging

    The board formats are stacked, conveyed, and packaged and are therefore ready for shipping. 

    Machines:
    Conveyor and storage systems, Packaging technology

Production process:Chip board – Process in individual steps – raw chip board

Necessary peripheral devices for Chip board10

  • Boiler systems with furnaces for wood fuels (solid wood, chips, dust, etc.)

    E.g. used in:Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Cranes for roundwood yards

    E.g. used in:Chip board, Fibre boards (MDF/HDF), OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Explosion protection systems

    E.g. used in:Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Fire and spark extinguishing systems

    E.g. used in:Furniture front, Windows, Flooring, Wooden stairs, Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Log sorting stations

    E.g. used in:Chip board, Fibre boards (MDF/HDF), OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Mobile log conveyors

    E.g. used in:Chip board, Fibre boards (MDF/HDF), OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Plants, units and auxiliary equipment for energy generation; other

    E.g. used in:Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Stationary conveying devices for roundwood yards

    E.g. used in:Chip board, Fibre boards (MDF/HDF), OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Storage systems for roundwood yards

    E.g. used in:Chip board, Fibre boards (MDF/HDF), OSB- Oriented Strand Board

  • Wood furnaces for generating hot gas

    E.g. used in:Chip board, OSB- Oriented Strand Board

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